Arduino UNO Fundamentals | Hardware Introduction

The Recent Technology is focusing on Automation and Robotics. Micro controllers are widely used for the Automation and Robotics. When we think about a robot, a word rings suddenly in our mind named as Arduino. Arduino is the most advanced open source microcontroller and widely used for automation and robotics. Arduino UNO is one of the best used microcontrollers in the world with better experience. Arduino UNO are widely used in various educational and corporate organizations.  The first thing is to understand the fundamentals and basic concepts of Arduino. We can easily use our Arduino UNO after the required knowledge about the various parts and circuits on the chip.


Arduino UNO Introduction:

Arduino UNO is an open source microcontroller. It is called as brain of robot. By using it, we can control DC motors, sensors. We require a program for the various functions to be performed by the robot.  These functions are saved in the form of a program and are uploaded to microcontroller and it controls all the parts of a robot. Let us study all the essential parts of Arduino UNO:

Wait a minute and take a quick note on the below:

What is Robotics | Introduction and Types of Robots

 ATmega328P Micro Controller:

It is the main component of Arduino. It is Atmel  8-bit AVR RISC- based microcontroller. This is used for the low poered and less costly projects and appliances to handle the working of appliance in which it is fitted. It supplies sigmals to every pin and control all the pins according to the program that you uploaded with the help of USB plug. For more details, click here.

USB Plug Port:

USB plug port is used to transfer the programs from computer to Microcontroller. It is used as power supply for microcontroller by adding battery to it. We can use Power bank along with USB cable to execute its working.

Power Supply:

The DC Power Supply port is situated near USB plug port. It is necessary to operate it under 5V voltage. We can use various Adapters and Electric devices that support the specifications.

Power Pins:

The Power pins are mounted near power supply port as showed in figure. The power ports occupies 9 volts current and supplies current to the robotic parts attached to Arduino. There are 8 pins that has different voltages. as mentioned over the Arduino. We can attach the Power to the suitable Pin by knowing the power required to an electric part attached to it.

Power Pins have one Ground Pin.  This is connected to one circuit complete the circuit.

Analog Pins:

Analog Pins are used to connect analog sensors. The Analog pins are mainly used to take Analog Inputs and outputs. The rest will be discussed in the upcoming articles.


Digital Pins:

These pins can be used for Input and Output. Digital Pins require more study to be used for various projects. The Digital Pins plays important role in execution of any project.

On Board LEDs:

ON/OFF LED: The small LED placed near UNO logo is On/Off LED. It tells us if the Arduino is On or Off.  It will blink showing that the arduino is in active Mode.

TX & RX LED: Tx stands for Transmitter and Rx stands for Reciever. This LED is placed in front of 13th Digital Pin. It will glow at the time it transmit and receive data from Arduino.

Load LED: This LED is denoted as L. It is directly connected to the Pin 13 of Digital Pins and is placed closely to 13th Pin. It is Widely used for many purposes and Learning programs.

Arduino Uno Specifications:

  • Microcontroller: ATmega328P
  • Operating Voltage: 5v
  • Input Voltage: 7-20v
  • Digital I/O Pins: 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output)
  • Analog Input Pins: 6
  • DC Current per I/O Pin: 20 mA
  • DC Current for 3.3V Pin: 50 mA
  • Flash Memory: 32 KB of which 0.5 KB used by bootloader
  • SRAM: 2 KB
  • EEPROM: 1 KB
  • Clock Speed: 16 MHz
  • Length: 68.6 mm
  • Width: 53.4 mm
  • Weight: 25 g

Courtesy: Wikipedia

Know Arduino UNO:

This was all about the Fundamental Components of Arduino UNO and their Specifications. These Circuit boards are like a brain for a robot.  These are widely used hardwares with integration of Software that you can download free from Official website of Arduino Uno. Hope you liked this article and learnt the basic components. Let’s Share this Article to the world and get in touch for the upcoming articles about Arduino UNO.


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